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雅思阅读机经解析-Flight from reality

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2018-12-13 新通教育

最近有不少同学在找雅思阅读机经,因为有了机经就可以很好的复习之前考过的试题,这也是有效提高考试成绩的方法,今天新通教育小编就为大家带来一篇雅思阅读机经解析,快来看看吧!

Flight from reality

Mobiles are barred, but passengers can lap away on their laptops to their hearts’ content. Is one really safer than the other? In the US, a Congressional subcommittee grilled airline representatives and regulators about the issue last month. But the committee heard that using cellphones in planes may indeed pose a risk albeit a slight one. This would seem to vindicate the treatment of Manchester oil worker Neil Whitehouse, who was sentenced last summer to a year in jail by a British court for refusing to turn off his mobile phone on a flight home from Madrid. Although he was only typing a message to be sent on landing not actually making a call, the court decided that hems putting the flight at risk.

A The potential for problems is certainly there. Modern airliners are packed with electronic devices that control the plane and handle navigation and communications. Each has to meet stringent safeguards to make sure it doesn't emit radiation that would interfere with other devices in the plane-standards that passengers' personal electronic devices don't necessarily meet. Emissions from inside the plane could also interfere with sensitive antennae on the fixed exterior.

B But despite running a number of studies, Boeing, Airbus and various government agencies haven't been able to find clear evidence of problems caused by personal electronic devices, including mobile phones. "We've done our own studies. We've found cellphones actually have no impact on the navigation system," says Maryanne Greczyn, a spokeswoman for Airbus Industries of North America in Herndon, Virginia, Not do they affect other critical systems, she says The only impact Airbus found? "Sometimes when a passenger is starting or finishing a phone call, the pilot hears a wry slight beep in the headset," she says.

 

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C The best evidence yet of a problem comes from a report released this year by Britain's Civil Aviation Authority. Its researchers generated simulated cellphone transmissions inside two Boeing aircraft. They concluded that the transmissions could create signals at a power and frequency that would not affect the latest equipment, but exceeded the safety threshold established in 1984 and might therefore affect some of the older equipment on board. This doesn’t mean "mission critical" equipment such as the navigation system and flight controls. But the devices that could be affected, such as smoke detectors and fuel level indicators, could still create serious problems for the flight crew if they malfunction.

D Many planes still use equipment certified to the older standards, says Dan Hawkes, head of avionics at the CAA's Safely Regulation Croup. The CAA study doesn't prove the equipment will actually fail when subjected to the signals, but docs show there's a danger. "We've taken some of the uncertainty out of these beliefs," he says Another study later this year will see if the cellphone signals actually cause devices to fail.

E In 1996, RTCA, a consultant hired by the Federal Aviation Administration in the US to conduct tests, determined that potential problems from personal electronic devices were "low". Nevertheless, it recommended a ban on their use during "critical" periods of flight, such as take-off and landing. RTCA didn't actually test cellphones, but nevertheless recommended their wholesale ban on flights, But if "better safe than sorry" is the current policy, it's applied inconsistently, according to Marshall Cross, the chairman of Mega Wave Corporation, based in Boylston, Massachusetts. Why are cellphones outlawed when no one considers a ban on laptops? "It's like most things in life. The reason is a little bit technical, a little bit economic and a little bit political,” says Cross.

 

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F The company wrote a report for the FAA in 1998 saying it is possible to build an on-board system that can detect dangerous signals from electronic devices. But Cross's personal conclusion is that mobile phones aren't the real threat. "You'd have to stretch things pretty far to figure out how a cellphone could interfere with a plane's systems," he says. Cellphones transmit in ranges of around 400, 800 or 1800 megahertz. Since no important piece of aircraft equipment operates at those frequencies, the possibility of interference is very low, Cross says. The use of Computers and electronic game systems is much more worrying, lie says. They can generate very strong signals at frequencies that could interfere with plane electronics, especially if a mouse is attached {the wire operates as an antenna or if their built-in shielding is somehow damaged. Some airlines are even planning to put sockets for laptops in seatbacks.

G There's fairly convincing anecdotal evidence that some personal electronic devices have interfered with systems. Air crew on one flight found that the autopilot was being disconnected, and narrowed the problem down to a passenger's portable computer. They could actually watch the autopilot disconnect when they switched the computer on. Boeing bought the computer, took it to the airline's labs and even tested it on an empty flight. But as with every other reported instance of interference, technicians were unable to replicate the problem.

H Some engineers, however, such as Bruce Donham of Boeing, say that common sense suggests phones are more risky than laptops. "A device capable of producing a strong emission is not as safe as a device which does not have any intentional emission," lie says. Nevertheless, many experts think it's illogical that cellphones are prohibited when computers aren't. Besides, the problem is more complicated than simply looking at power and frequency. In the air, the plane operates in a soup of electronic emissions, created by its own electronics and by ground-based radiation. Electronic devices in the cabin-especially those emitting a strong signal-can behave unpredictably, reinforcing other signals, for instance, or creating unforeseen harmonics that disrupt systems.

I Despite the Congressional subcommittee hearings last month, no one seems to be working seriously on a technical solution that would allow passengers to use their phones. That's mostly because no one -besides cellphone users themselves-stands to gain a lot if the phones are allowed in the air. Even the cellphone companies don't want it. They are concerned that airborne signals could cause problems by flooding a number of the networks' base stations at once with the same signal This effect, called bigfooting, happens because airborne cellphone signals tend to go to many base stations at once, unlike land calls which usually go to just one or two stations. In the US, even if FAA regulations didn’t prohibit cellphones in the air, Federal Communications Commission regulations would.

J Possible solutions might be to enhance airliners' electronic insulation, or to fit detectors which warned flight staff when passenger devices were emitting dangerous signals. But Cross complains that neither the FAA, the airlines nor the manufacturers are showing much interest in developing these. So despite Congressional suspicions and the occasional irritated (or jailed) mobile user, the industry's "better safe than sorry" policy on mobile phones seems likely to continue. In the absence of firm evidence that the international airline industry is engaged in a vast conspiracy to overcharge its customers, a delayed phone call seems a small price to pay for even the tiniest reduction in the chances of a plane Crash. But you'll still be allowed to use your personal computer during a flight. And while that remains the case, airlines can hardly claim that logic has prevailed.

Question 14-17

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than three words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

The would-be risk surly exists, since the avionic systems on modern aircraft are used to manage flight and deal with ___14____. Those devices are designed to meet the safety criteria which should be free from interrupting ___15____ or interior emission. The personal use of mobile phone may cause the sophisticated ___16____ outside of plane to dysfunction. Though definite interference in piloting devices has not been scientifically testified, the devices such as those which detect ___17____ or indicate fuel load could be affected.

Question 18-22

Use the information in the passage to match the Organization (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.

A.     British Civil Aviation Authority

B.      Maryanne Greczyn

C.      RTCA

D.     Marshall Cross

E.      Boeing company

18.   Mobile usages should be forbidden in a specific fame.

19.   Computers are more dangerous than cell phones.

20.   Finding that the mobile phones pose little risk on flight's navigation devices.

21.   The disruption of laptops is not as dangerous as cellphones.

22.   The mobile signal may have impact on earlier devices.

Question 23-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true

FALSE if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN if the information is not given

23.Almost all scientists accept that cellphones have higher emission than that of personal computers.

24.Some people believe that radio emission will interrupt the equipment on plane.

25.The signal interference-detecting device has not yet been developed because they are in priority for neither administrative department nor offer economic incentive.

26.FAA initialed open debate with Federal Communications Commission.

篇章结构

体裁

论说文

题目

电子信号影响飞行

结构

A段- 机舱内部发射电频信号的风险

B段- 但是,航空公司与政府目前没有证据表明风险属实

C段- 仅有的一个证据表明手机信号对飞行中的飞机的干扰--英国民航局进行的一项实验

D段- 内部的信号确实会带来风险,但未必会使得飞机的仪器失灵

E段- 尽管手机信号对飞机的干扰较低,依然禁止使用。原因有三个方面

F段- 电脑在飞机上的使用实际上比手机更加有风险

G段- 一则趣闻-某人使用的电脑确实被发现对飞机的正常飞行产生威胁

H段- 手机被禁止使用,而电脑没有被禁止。这不合理

I段- 各个利益方(除开手机使用者)都不希望取消手机在飞机上禁用的政策

J段- 手机禁用的政策将持续下去,尽管不合乎逻辑。

 

 

试题分析

Question 14-19

题目类型:

题号

定位词

文中对应点

题目解析

14

Would-be risk

A段第一句

A段第一句开头的potential for problem 等于would-be risk,意义为潜在危险,handle等于deal with ,后面就是答案 navigation and communications

15

Safety criteria

A段第二句

A段第二句有safeguard这个单词,所以继续往后看,发现emit radiation,取其中的radiation

16

Outside of a plane

A段第三句

A段第三句讲到fixed exterior,也就是飞机外面,对应题干的outside of a plane,所以答案就是这句话中antennae (天线)

17

Fuel load

C段最后一句

C段最后一句提到fuel level indicator,在这个并列前面那一项 smoke就是答案

18

RTCA

E段

RTCA是一个机构名称,我们定位到E段,发现这个机构的主张是禁止手机在飞机起飞,降落这些特殊时期使用,符合题干信息specific time

19

Computers

F段

F段阐述电脑比手机更加危险。在其中的cross其实是E段中的Marshall Cross的简称,所以我们选择Marshall cross

Question 20-22

题目类型:MATCHING

题号

定位词

文中对应点

题目解析

20

mobile phone, little risk

B段

该机构研究人员表明,几项研究都没有体现手机对于飞机飞行的实际干扰。所以应该选择B

21

dangerous

H段中第一句

提到了波音公司的观点,“常识表明,在飞机上使用手机比使用电脑更危险。符合题干信息

22

earlier devices

C段

出现的latest equipment与题干信息相符,确定这个信息的来源是英国民航局

Question 23-26题目类型:

SUMMARY COMPLETION

题号

定位词

文中对应点

题目解析

23

almost all

H段

两方专家的观点,对于到底是手机更危险还是电脑更危险明显持不同意见。所以不可能是all .答案是FALSE

24

radio emission

A段

无线电频信号对于飞机的飞行具有干扰性,所以答案是TRUE

25

economic, administrative

E段

手机目前被禁止的原因有多方因素。所以选择TRUE

26

debate

全文

全文都没有提及这两家机构有开展公开辩论。所以本题选择NOT GIVEN

参考答案:

Version 22206 主题 电子信号影响飞行

14

navigation and communications

15

radiation

16

antennae

17

smoke

18

C

19

D

20

B

21

E

22

A

23

FALSE

24

TRUE

25

TRUE

26

NOT GIVEN

 

 

 

以上就是新通教育为大家提供的雅思阅读机经解析。同学们还可以点击此处免费进行进行雅思托福SATGRE模考测评。欢迎点击下方咨询老师按钮随时咨询,预祝各位新通语言培训学员们取得优异的成绩!

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