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如何斩获新SAT中写作部分的高分

作者:杨桂蓉

2018-03-23 新通教育

本文对新sat写作reading ,analysis和writing 部分得分要点总结。

 我们都知道,新sat考试写作部分要求考生用50分钟的时间对一篇议论文进行阅读并完成一篇分析型作文。阅卷者将从reading, analysis和writing三个维度全方位地考察学生的写作功底。两位考官判分,每个维度的判分为1-4分,考生最后得分为两位阅卷者评分之和。比如一位考生的作文表现出色,阅卷者分别在三个维度上给了4-4-4和4-3-4 的分数,那么最终这个学生的写作成绩为8-7-8。

对于reading来说,得到6-8分的高分并不难。从OG的官方描述来看,reading部分得分要点在于:考生要在文章中

1. 体现出对全文中心思想的清晰了解;

2. 能够巧妙合理地引用或转述原文的重要细节;

3. 对原文的引用准确无误,不能曲解作者的意思,更不能与作者的意思相悖。

举个例子:OG Test 2 “Beyond Vietnam”一文中,当描述到美国政府在越南战争中派年轻的黑人和白人去越南参战时,我们可以这样引用并体现原文:King sees young black men, denied their rights at home, sent 8,ooo miles “to guarantee liberties in Southeast Asia”; Negro and white boys, who cannot study at the same school in the US, “kill and die together” in Vietnam; boys who cannot live in the same Chicago neighbourhood burn nuts abroad in “brutal solidarity”. 不是通过直接的大段引用这种略显笨拙的方法,这段文字巧妙地引用了原文提及的重要细节。

再比如:OG Test 1中当介绍前美国总统Jimmy Carter用自己的亲身经历来描写对 “Arctic National Wildlife Refuge”难以抹去的美好回忆时,下面的文字又再次体现了对原文内容的准确再现:The refuge spans space-a vast area so far to the north that it boasts a “midnight sun”in summer-and time that began long before humans. He encourages the reader to imagine a land where the caribou trails are “ancient”and the muskox have lived since the Ice Age. Nature’s domain, like “the never-setting sun”, is “timeless”. He enhances this sense of eternal continuity with his depiction of visitors being humbled with a fleeting “once-in-a-lifetime”spectacle of the tundra being”flooded with life”. 

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再说writing 部分的要点:

1.思路清晰,逻辑顺序得当。也就是我们的作文能够让阅卷考官清楚地知道每一段的核心内容是什么,段落间的逻辑和衔接是不是顺畅自然;

2.语言精练简洁,用词规范正式。直白点说,从遣词造句上,要有丰富多彩的词汇和灵活多变的句式结构。

请看范例和反例,以上要点相信同学们会更清楚。

范例1. Though some of Trump’s evidence comes in the form of personal anecdotes, much of it comes from authoritative sources. This combination of evidence makes his argument more well-rounded as well as easier to read. 

反例1:Trump is a good writer. He makes good points. He uses good evidence. 

范例2: Although Trump can be didactic at times, overall he effectively argues for the removal of dams. 

反例2:Even though this guy is pretty boring sometimes, you can really understand where he’s coming from. 

而对于分析部分而言,相信是很多同学的痛点,有不少托福写作考到27-28分的高分同学参加sat考试时,写作部分只拿到了7-5-7,7-4-7这样的分数,显然这类学生对文章的理解和writing部分功底相当不错,那为什么analysis 部分相比之下却逊色很多呢?

正如作战需要明确攻打目标,考生首先要清楚的一点是:我们面对的是一个analytical task,而不是写summary! 也就是说:考生不仅能够在写作中体现对原文重要的论点、论据、论证和语言修辞的理解,最重要的是能够分析原文这些细节背后的写作目的和对读者达到的影响。

要对原文分析,分析什么?从哪些方面分析?

1.Evidence(对论据分析)

通过引用或者paraphrase呈现原文细节,并详细阐释这一细节对展开原文论点的作用。切记:写作时,不仅要看到作者使用了怎样的论据,更要进一步分析原文作者使用这一论据的具体作用和影响。必须向考官展示自己既理解了原文作者使用了哪些论据,同时也弄清楚了这些论据的用意所在,对原文的论据分析才是新sat Essay 写作的关键。

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2.Reasoning (对论证分析)

关注作者如何排兵布阵,组织论据、证明观点的,也就是要分析原文的论证方式。论据解决的是用什么论证的问题,而论证解决的是如何使用论据证明观点的问题。一篇议论文,如果只是几个例子、数据、事实的简单陈述,甚至杂乱无章地罗列, 会让读者一头雾水、不知所云。高质量的议论文一定会采用清晰的逻辑顺序、合理的结构安排、顺畅的行文思路展开自己的论述,以便将自己的观点一览无余地呈现在读者面前。这是对作者逻辑推理过程的分析能力的考验,考生必须在写作中向考官展示自己的逻辑推理分析能力,为获得高分增添筹码。

3.Stylistic or Persuasive elements  (对语言技巧的分析)

文章的修辞,简言之,对语言的修饰。议论文中,为了渲染气氛,增加说服力,作者常常使用必要的修辞手段。考生需要能够理解并分析这些修辞手法或者emotional appeal, word choice 的目的和效果是什么,为什么能达到这种效果。

知道了要分析什么,那么怎样分析?我们同样来看一些例子:

反例:The author uses a rhetorical question to strengthen his argument.

空喊口号,分析无力

范例:By posing a rhetorical question about “stereotype threat”, the author invites the readers to ponder that maybe they should know about it, thus giving emotional weight to his argument that we must see the other side of the soft sciences.

有具体阐释,展示了修辞效果 

反例:The author firstly incorporates data that “of the 80000 dams..., more than 26000 pose high or significant hazards, only about 1750 produce hydropower”. Then he points out the environmental damage the existing dams cause to the water quality, movement of nutrients and sediments. Also, the author strengthens his idea of removing the obsolete dams by stating that removing them is “three to five times less expensive than repairing them”. All these significant and detailed information adds credibility to the author’s argument and effectively persuade the audience to take his side. 

(同学们一定要杜绝这种assertive analysis,我们并不能否认反例中这位同学也有对原文的分析,但是这一分析只是蜻蜓点水,浮于表面,为什么这些论据能够add credibility, 具体是怎样达到说服读者的效果的?这位同学并没有给出详细的分析和解释,两位考官加起来的分析最多也只有4分的水平。)

范例:Initially, the author leads his audience to gradually realize that removing obsolete dams in America is necessary by using a series of solid evidence. In paragraph one, by listing the specific statistics from the National Hydropower Association that “of the 80000 dams..., more than 26000 pose high or significant hazards, only about 1750 produce hydropower”, the author aims to utilize undeniable statistical evidence to convey the idea to the audience that most of the existing dams are not functioning well, in this way, the astounding figure helps them recognize reality and they may wonder what we should do to respond the situation. Then in paragraph three, the author includes facts like “Dams degrade water quality, block the movement of nutrients and sediments......reservoirs can also be significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions”. If those obsolete dams only involve negative effect on the production of hydropower, it is still not sufficient enough for readers to accept its damage, but the enormous environmental damage they cause might force the audience to further realize their destructive power and turn to take author’s side. To further his reasoning, Yvon Chouinard points out the cost of removing them “is three to five times less expensive” than that of repairing them. Every reader will regard economic factor as significant since this is human nature, and the government will also not ignore monetary aspect when starting or ending a massive project considering its financial budget. Therefore, by emphasizing the economic cost of repairing those obsolete dams, the author skillfully resonates with his audience from this respect and makes them acknowledge the legitimate solution of removing unnecessary dams. 

(通过引用再现了原文,并且详尽分析了为什么能达到说服效果,怎样实现。)

以上就是我对新sat写作reading ,analysis 和writing 部分得分要点的总结,希望能够给各位考生一些思考和启发。

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