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SAT阅读话题分类——黑人土著

作者:新通教育

2016-02-19 新通教育

SAT阅读一直是中国考生的薄弱项,新通教育为帮助广大考生提高SAT考试成绩,特地精心整理了SAT阅读分类题库。那快来SAT阅读高分素材库汲取营养吧!

    In many respects living Native Americans remain as mysterious,
    exotic, and unfathomable to their contemporaries at the end
    of the twentieth century as they were to the Line Pilgrim
    settlers over three hundred fifty years ago. Native
  5 rights, motives, customs, languages, and aspirations are
    misunderstood by Euro-Americans out of a culpable ignorance
    that is both self-serving and self-righteous. Part of
    the problem may well stem from the long-standing tendency
    of European or Euro-American thinkers to regard
  10 Native Americans as fundamentally and profoundly
  different,motivated more often by mysticism than by
  ambition, charged more by unfathomable visions than
  by intelligence or introspection.

  This idea is certainly not new. Rousseau's "noble
  15 savages’,wandered, pure of heart, through a pristine world.
    Since native people were simply assumed to be incomprehensible,
    they were seldom comprehended. Their societies
  were simply beheld, often through cloudy glasses, and
  rarely probed by the tools of logic and deductive analysis
  20 automatically reserved for cultures prejudged to be
  “civilized.” And on those occasions when Europeans
  did attempt to formulate an encompassing theory, it was
  not, ordinarily, on a human-being-to-human-being basis,
  but rather through an ancestor-descendant model. Native
  25 Americans, though obviously contemporary with their
  observers, were somehow regarded as ancient, examples
  of what Stone Age Europeans must have been like.

  It's a great story, an international crowd pleaser, but
  there is a difficulty; Native Americans were,and are,
  30 Homo sapiens. Though often equipped with a
  shovel-shaped incisor tooth, eyes with epicanthic folds’
  or an extra molar cusp. Native American people have had
  to cope, for the last forty thousand years or so, just like
  everyone else. Their cultures have had to make internal sense
  35, their medicines have had to work consistently and
  practically, their philosophical explanations have had to be
  reasonably satisfying and dependable, or else the ancestors
  of those now called Native Americans would truly have
  vanished long ago.

  40 The reluctance in accepting this obvious fact comes
  from the Eurocentric conviction that the West holds a
  monopoly on science, logic, and clear thinking. To
  admit that other, culturally divergent viewpoints are
  equally plausible is to cast doubt on the monolithic
  45 center of Judeo-Christian belief: that there is but one
  of everything—God, right way, truth—and Europeans
  alone knew what that was. If Native American cultures
  were acknowledged as viable,then European societies
  were something less than an exclusive club. It is little
  50 wonder, therefore, that Native Americans were perceived
  not so much as they were but as they had to be,from a
  European viewpoint. They dealt in magic,not method.

  They were stuck in their past, not guided by its precedents.
  Such expedient misconception argues strongly for the
  55 development and dissemination of a more accurate, more
  objective historical account of native peoples—a goal
  easier stated than accomplished. Native American societies
  were nonliterate before and during much of the early period
  of their contact with Europe, making the task of piecing
  60 together a history particularly demanding. The familiar and
  reassuring kinds of written documentation found in European
  societies of equivalent chronological periods do not exist,
  and the forms of tribal record preservation available—oral
  history, tales,mnemonic devices, and religious rituals—
  65 strike university-trained academics as inexact, unreliable,
  and suspect. Eastern historians, culture-bound by their
  own approach to knowledge, are apt to declaim that next to
  nothing, save the evidence of archaeology, can be known
  of early Native American life. To them, an absolute void
  70 is more acceptable and rigorous than an educated guess.

  However, it is naive to assume that any culture's history
  is perceived without subjective prejudice. Every modem
  observer, whether he or she was schooled in the traditions
  of the South Pacific or Zaire, of Hanover, New Hampshire,
  75 or Vienna, Austria, was exposed at an early age to one or
  another form of folklore at>out Native Americans. For
  some, the very impressions about Native American tribes
  that initially attracted them to the field of American history
  are aspects most firmly rooted in popular myth and stereo-
  80 type. Serious scholarship about Native American culture and
  history is unique in that it requires an initial, abrupt, and
  wrenching demythologizing. Most students do not start
  from point zero, but from minus zero, and in the process are
  often required to abandon cherished childhood fantasies of
  85 superheroes or larger-than-life villains.
  ♦ Rousseau was an eighteenth-century French philosopher.

  13. The reference to ‘the Pilgrim settlers” (lines 3-4) is used to
  (A) invite reflection about a less complicated era
  (B) suggest the lasting relevance of religious issues
  (C) establish a contrast with today's reformers
  (D) debunk a myth about early colonial life
  (E) draw a parallel to a current condition

  14. In line 12,"charged" most nearly means
  (A) commanded
  (B) indicated
  (C) replenished
  (D) inspired
  (E) attacked

  15. In line 14, the reference to Rousseau is used to emphasize the
  (A) philosophical origins of cultural bias
  (B) longevity of certain types of misconceptions
  (C) tendency to fear the unknown
  (D) diversity among European intellectual traditions
  (E) argument that even great thinkers are fallible

  16. The phrase "international crowd pleaser" (line 28) refers to
  (A) an anthropological fallacy
  (B) an entertaining novelty
  (C) a harmless deception
  (D) a beneficial error
  (E) a cultural revolution

  17. The "difficulty" referred to in line 29 most directly undermines
  (A) the ancestor-descendant model used by European observers
  (B) the possibility for consensus in anthropological inquiry
  (C) efforts to rid popular culture of false stereotypes
  (D) theories based exclusively on logic and deductive reasoning
  (E) unfounded beliefs about early European communities

  18. Lines 34-37 ("Their cultures ... dependable") describe
  (A) customs that fuel myths about a society
  (B) contradictions that conventional logic cannot resolve
  (C) characteristics that are essential to the survive of any people
  (D) criteria that Western historians traditionally use to assess cultures
  (E) preconditions that must be met before a culture can influence others

  19. The two sentences that begin with ‘They” in lines 52-53 serve to express the
  (A) way one group perceived another
  (B) results of the latest research
  (C) theories of Native Americans about Europeans
  (D) external criticisms that some Native American accepted
  (E) survival techniques adopted by early human societies

  20. In lines 66-70, the author portrays Western historians as
  (A) oblivious to the value of archaeological research
  (B) disadvantaged by an overly narrow methodology
  (C) excessively impressed by prestigious credentials
  (D) well meaning but apt to do more harm than good
  (E) anxious to contradict the faulty conclusions of their predecessors

  21. The "educated guess’’ mentioned in line 70 would most likely be based on
  (A) compilations of government population statistics
  (B) sources such as oral histories and religious rituals
  (C) analyses of ancient building structures by archaeologists
  (D) measurements of fossils to determine things such as physical characteristics
  (E) studies of artifacts discovered in areas associated with particular tribes

  22. The geographical references in lines 74-75 serve to underscore the
  (A) influence Native American culture has had outside the United States
  (B) argument that academic training is undergoing increasing homogenization
  (C) universality of certain notions about Native American peoples
  (D) idea that Native Americans have more in common with other peoples than is acknowledged
  (E) unlikelihood that scholars of Native American history will settle their differences

  23. The passage suggests that “Most students” (line 82) need to undergo a process of
  (A) rebelliousness
  (B) disillusionment
  (C) hopelessness
  (D) inertia
  (E) self-denial

  24. In line 83,"minus zero” refers to the
  (A) nature of the preconceptions held by most beginning scholars of Native American culture
  (B) quality of scholarship about Native American cultures as currently practiced at most universities
  (C) reception that progressive scholars of Native American history have received in academia
  (D) shortage of written sources available to students of Native American history
  (E) challenges.that face those seeking grants to conduct original research about Native American history

 

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