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托福听力lecture并列型分析

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2018-03-02 新通教育

lecture的并列型结构,一般是围绕某一个主题并列平行展开去讲解。这类结构没有之前我们见到的直线型结构那么好区分,因为他没有明显的表示时间地点人物的信号词,但是这种结构类型是我们TPO和考试中出现的比较多的结构类型。

之前我们介绍了lecture的并列型结构,一般是围绕某一个主题并列平行展开去讲解。这类结构没有之前我们见到的直线型结构那么好区分,因为他没有明显的表示时间地点人物的信号词,但是这种结构类型是我们TPO和考试中出现的比较多的结构类型。我们这次分析一篇按并列结构分层的一篇文章
今天我们以TPO17-L1为例,给大家讲解一下。
Good morning, ready to continue our review of prehistoric art? Today, we will be covering the Upper Paleolithic Period, which I am roughly defining as the period from 35,000 to 8,000 BC. A lot of those cave drawings you have all seen come from this period. But we are also be talking about portable works of art, things that could be carried around from place to place. 文章开始直接说道我们今天要讲到portable works of art ,并且解释了portable的意思Here is one example. This sculpture is called the Lady with the Hood1 , and it was carved from ivory, probably a mammoth’s tusk. Its age is a bit of a mystery. According to one source, it dates from 22,000 BC. But other sources claimed it has been dated closer to 30,000 BC. Amy?
Why don’t we know the exact date when this head was made? 紧接着提出问题,文章的中心内容如何给这些艺术品确定年龄
That’s a fair question. We are talking about prehistory here. So obviously the artists didn’t put a signature or a date on anything they did. So how do we know when this figure was carved?
Last semester I took an archaeology class and we spent a lot time on, studying ways to date things. One technique I remember was using the location of an object to date it, like how deep it was buried.
That would be Stratigraphy. Stratigraphy is used for dating portable art. When archaeologists are digging at a site, they make very careful notes about which stratum(strata), which layer of earth they find things in. And, you know, the general rule is that the oldest layers are at the lowest level. But this only works if the site hasn’t been touched, and the layers are intact. 首先提出提议中解决这个问题的方法,Stratigraphy并且解释了这个词
A problem with this dating method is that an object could have been carried around, used for several generations before it was discarded. So it might be much older than the layer or even the site where it was found. The stratification technique gives us the minimum age of an object, which isn’t necessarily its true age. Tom, in your archaeology class, did you talk about radiocarbon dating? 但是紧接着就说出了这个方法的问题problem
Yeah, we did. That had to do with chemical analysis, something to do with measuring the amount of radiocarbon that’s left in organic stuff. Because we know how fast radiocarbon decays, we can figure out the age of the organic material. 这里出现了一个屏幕提示词的解释,也就是第二种确定艺术品年龄的方式
The key word there is organic. Is art made of organic material?
Well, you said the lady with the hood was carved out of ivory. That ’s organic.
Absolutely. Any other examples?
Well, when they did those cave drawings. Didn’t they use, like charcoal or maybe
colors, dyes made from plants?
Fortunately, they did, at least some of the time. So it turns out that radiocarbon
dating works for a lot of prehistoric art. But again there’s a problem. 符合之前的模式,这个方法同样存在问题
This technique destroys what it analyzes, so you have to chip off bits of the object for testing. Obviously we are reluctant to do that in some cases. And apart from that, there’s another problems. The date tells you the age of the material, say, a bone or a tree, the object is made from, but not the date when the artist actually created it. So, with radiocarbon dating, we get the maximum possible age for the object, but it could be younger.
Ok, let’ s say our scientific analysis has produced an age range. Can we narrow it down?
 在前两个方法都有问题的情况下,学生试着提出第三种方法,用艺术品的风格去判断
Could we look for similar styles or motives? You know, try to find things common to one time period.
We do that all the time. And when we see similarities in pieces of art, we assume some connection in time or place. But is it possible that we could be imposing our own values on that analysis? 虽然没有出现problem这个词但是通过BUT这个词我们还是可以判断出这个方法是有问题的。
I am sorry. I don’t get your point.
Well, we have all kinds of pre-conceived ideas about how artistic styles develop. For example, a lot of people think the presence of details demonstrates that the work was done by a more sophisticated artist. While a lack of detail suggests a primitive style. But trends in art in the last century or so certainly challenge that idea. Don’t get me wrong though, analyzing the styles of prehistoric art can help dating them. But we need to be careful with the idea that artistic development occurs in a straight line, from simple to complex representations.
What you are saying is, I mean, I get the feeling that this is like a legal process, like building a legal case, the more pieces of evidence we have, the closer we get to the truth.
Great analogy. And now you can see why we don’t have an exact date for our sculpture, the lady with the hood.
所以这篇文章虽然单词比较生僻但是文章的层次非常明显,提出三种给艺术品确定年龄的方式,并且每种法师都存在问题。

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名师简介

本科毕业于西安外国语大学英语专业,英语专业八级,硕士毕业于英国杜伦大学教育学专业,回国后从事出国考试英语教学工作4年;主要涉及雅思托福听力部分;熟悉考试模式题点,擅长通过提高考生的基础知识以及配合应试技巧来提高应试能力,提倡学生在通过正确的学习方式、习惯来全方面的提升英语水平,帮助学生提高成绩。

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