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托福听力lecture并列型分析

作者:韩梦子

2018-05-04 新通教育

托福听力lecture的并列型结构,一般是围绕某一个主题并列平行展开去讲解。这类结构没没有明显的表示时间地点人物的信号词,但是是我们TPO和考试中出现的比较多的结构类型。

之前我们介绍了托福听力lecture的并列型结构,一般是围绕某一个主题并列平行展开去讲解。这类结构没有之前我们见到的直线型结构那么好区分,因为他没有明显的表示时间地点人物的信号词,但是这种结构类型是我们TPO和考试中出现的比较多的结构类型。我们这次分析一篇按并列结构分层的一篇文章。

今天我们以TPO14-L3为例,给大家讲解一下。

OK, last time we talked about ancient agricultural civilizations that observed the stars and then used those observations to keep track of the seasons. But today I want to talk about the importance of stars for early seafarers, about how the fixed patterns of stars were used as navigational aids.  这篇托福听力文章一开始先讲上次讲的内容,但是篇幅不多,之后直接表达的这次文章的主题,人们如何运用星星作为导航的工具

OK, you’ve all heard about the Vikings and their impressive navigation skills, but the seafaring peoples of the Pacific islands, the Polynesians and the Micronesians, were quite possibly the world’s greatest navigators. Long before the development of, uh, advanced navigational tools in Europe, Pacific islanders were travelling from New Zealand to Hawaii and back again, using nothing but the stars as their navigational instruments.这部分借由Viking维京人引出今天的主题太平洋岛的人们,他们才是世界上伟大的航海者

Um, the key to the Pacific islanders’ success was probably their location near the equator. What that meant was that the sky could be partitioned, divided up, much more symmetrically than it could farther away from the equator. Unlike the Vikings, early observers of the stars in Polynesia or really anywhere along the equator would feel that they were at the very center of things, with the skies to the north and the skies to the south behaving identically, they could see stars going straight up in the east and straight down in the west. So it was easier to discern the order in the sky than farther north or farther south, where everything would seem more chaotic.文章中key一词很关键,分析他们成功的关键就是因为离赤道非常近。

Take the case of the Gilbert Islands, they are part of Polynesia, and lie very close to the equator. And the people there were able to divide the sky into symmetrical boxes, according to the main directions, north, east, south and west. And they could precisely describe the location of a star by indicating its position in one of those imaginary boxes. And they realized that you had to know the stars in order to navigate. In fact there was only one word for both in the Gilbert Islands, when you wanted the star expert, you ask for a navigator. 进一步举例子支持上一段的观点,因为距离赤道近所以很方便判断方向。

Um, islanders from all over the Pacific learned to use the stars for navigation, and they passed this knowledge down from generation to generation. Some of them utilized stone structures called stone canoes, uh, and these canoes were on land, of course, and you can still see them on some islands today. They were positioned as if they were heading in the direction of the points on the sea horizon where certain stars would appear and disappear during the night, and, um, young, would-be navigators sat by the stones at night and turned in different directions to memorize the constellations they saw, so they could recognize them and navigate… by them later on when they went out to sea.这一段的主题很明显,讲的是知识的传递,并且举例子stone canoes来进一步说明

One important way the Polynesians had for orienting themselves was by using zenith stars. A zenith star was a really bright star that would pass directly overhead at a particular latitude…at a particular distance from the equator, often at a latitude associated with some particular Pacific island. So the Polynesians could estimate their latitude just by looking straight up, by observing whether a certain zenith star passed directly overhead at night, they’d know if they have reached the same latitude as a particular island they were trying to get to.

Um, another technique used by the Polynesians was to look for a star pair, that’s two stars that rise at the same time, or set at the same time, and navigators could use these pairs of stars as reference points, because they rise or set together only at specific latitudes. So navigators might see one star pair setting together. And, uh…would know how far north or south of the equator they were. And if they kept on going, and the next night they saw the pair of stars setting separately, then they would know that they were at a different degree of latitude. So looking at rising and setting star pairs is a good technique. Um… actually it makes more sense with setting stars; they can be watched instead of trying to guess when they’ll rise.最后两段分别举了托福听力中两种例子来给同学们具体分析如何用星星来判断方向。

所以这篇托福听力文章非常典型,每一段所讲的信息都是有自己独立的主题,体现并列的结构。

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指导老师

韩梦子
姓    名:韩梦子
所在地点: 西安市高新区高新路56号中国电信广场金融商务中心5F室
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名师简介

本科毕业于西安外国语大学英语专业,英语专业八级,硕士毕业于英国杜伦大学教育学专业,回国后从事出国考试英语教学工作4年;主要涉及雅思托福听力部分;熟悉考试模式题点,擅长通过提高考生的基础知识以及配合应试技巧来提高应试能力,提倡学生在通过正确的学习方式、习惯来全方面的提升英语水平,帮助学生提高成绩。

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