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【看美剧学托福】那些年,伤害我们的蚊子

作者:马晨抒

2016-02-17 新通教育

直到今天,蚊子,依旧是很多疾病的传播者,比如疟疾,乙脑,戈登热。再比如15年爆发、可能会在16年大范围传播的Zika.下面新通教育马晨抒老师带大家一起看美剧学托福,看一下那些年伤害我们的蚊子。免费咨询电话400-618-0272.

 “因为此后他发现不只孑孓,还有很多恶魔都可以安然无恙地通过我们那天真的石制过滤器。”——《霍乱时期的爱情》

“在阴暗的陶制水翁中,水看上去清清凉凉,带着一股树林的余味。但乌尔比诺医生没有被这种过滤的假象蒙蔽,因为他知道,尽管用了那么多防范措施,翁底却还是孑孓的圣殿。童年时期,为了打发漫长的时间,他曾怀着莫名的惊恐观察这些孑孓…….过了很久他才学到,原来孑孓是蚊子的幼虫。而一经知晓就再也忘不掉了,因为此后他发现不只孑孓,还有很多恶魔都可以安然无恙地通过我们那天真的石制过滤器。”

这是《霍乱时期的爱情》中,对乌尔比诺医生通过保护饮用水源控制霍乱和疝气的描写。小说中,那应该是19世纪末20世纪初的哥伦比亚。

直到今天,蚊子,依旧是很多疾病的传播者,比如疟疾,乙脑,戈登热。再比如15年爆发、可能会在16年大范围传播的Zika.

》》跟新通教育马晨抒老师学托福写作,细看Zika病毒那些事儿。免费咨询电话400-618-0272

【看美剧学托福】那些年,伤害我们的蚊子

首先科普一下什么是Zika。

As of early 2016, the most widespread outbreak of Zika virus disease, caused by the Zika virus, is ongoing primarily[1] in the Americas. The outbreak began in April 2015 in Brazil, and subsequently spread to other countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean.

In January 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) said that the virus was likely to spread throughout the majority of the Americas by the end of the year; and in February 2016, the WHO declared that the cluster of microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome(GBS) cases reported in Brazil–strongly suspected to be associated with the Zika virus outbreak-was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

[1]primarily  adv. 首先;主要地,根本上。这个单词的形容词形式及它的近义词在托福中出现很多次,比如:introductory course 基础课,elementary school 小学

 

Zika病毒主要靠蚊子传播。

The virus is mainly spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is commonly found throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas, but also by Aedes albopictus ("Asian tiger"), which have become widespread as far north as the Great Lakes region of North America.The Zika virus might also be transmitted through sex — two likely cases have been reportes.

 

》》在线咨询新通教育马晨抒老师托福写作中关于病毒的题目,免费咨询电话400-618-0272

感染Zika病毒会有什么症状呢?

The majority of Zika virus infections are [2]asymptomatic, making precise estimates of the number of cases very difficult to determine. In around one in five cases, infection with Zika virus results in a minor illness known as Zika fever, which causes symptoms such as fever and a rash. However, Zika virus infection in pregnant women has a suspected link with newborn microcephaly by mother-to-child transmission and, in very few cases, GBS. A number of countries have [  3 ] issued travel warnings, and the outbreak is expected to have an impact on the tourism industry.

[2]asymptomatic 无症状的 symptom表示“症状”,a-在这里做前缀表示否定

[3]issue n. 问题;流出;期号;发行物  v. 发行,发布;发给;放出,排出(本文中issued warnings 表示发出警告。)

 

以上文字摘自维基百科。

》》在线咨询托福写作中关于感染的词汇,免费咨询电话400-618-0272


美国NBC News 1月31号发表文章,讲述了其他几种由蚊子传播的疾病。

 

West Nile virus[4]

West Nile was only introduced into the United States in 1999, but it quickly spread to all 48 continental states as well as Canada and Mexico. Since then, it's infected hundreds of thousands of people, causing severe illness in about 40,000 and killing more than 1,600.

More than 2,000 cases were reported last year alone, more than 1,300 of them serious infections that caused meningitis or encephalitis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. California had a bad year last year with more than 700 cases and 45 deaths in 2015.

West Nile spreads badly because it is carried by several different species of mosquito that are common across the U.S., and because it also infects birds, so they act as what's called a reservoir for the virus. They can carry West Nile to new places and help keep it circulating. That's not known to happen with Zika.

[4]西尼罗病毒, 与乙型脑炎、黄热病、登革热、丙型肝炎等病毒同属。 是一种人兽共患病.近年来西尼罗病毒病出现在欧洲和北美的温带区域,对人和动物的健康构成了威胁。这种病严重的危害是使人和马患上致命的脑炎,使鸟,鸡等死亡。1950年以来,该病毒一直在非洲,中东和地中海沿岸国家流行,未引起重视。2012年8月15日美国爆发西尼罗病毒,已有17人确认死亡。

 

》》在线咨询马晨抒老师托福写作中关于病毒的题目,免费咨询电话400-618-0272

Eastern equine encephalitis virus[5]

Like Zika, this one's rare and usually does not cause symptoms. An average of eight cases a year are reported in the U.S., according to CDC. Most are in Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. It kills about a third of patients who develop serious symptoms and can cause severe brain damage in those who survive. Maine health officials reported a death from EEE in November and two people in New York died from the virus last year.

EEE lives in birds but a number of species of mosquito that bite both birds and people can spread it, including Aedes, Coquillettidia, and Culex mosquitoes.

[5]东部马脑炎,由东部马脑炎病毒引起的人畜共患病毒性疾病。主要侵犯马和人。因本病1933年流行于美国东部一些农场的马群,同年由Ten Broeck和Merrill从病马中分离出病毒 。临床上以高热及中枢神经系统症状为主。人偶然感染,潜伏期7~10天病死率可高达50%。本病尚无特效治疗方法,仍以支持疗法和对症处理为主。多数病人可顺利度过极期而恢复。

 

 》》在线咨询马晨抒老师托福写作中关于疾病的题目,免费咨询电话400-618-0272

St Louis Encephalitis[6] 

This one's rare but people in the southeast can catch it year-round. In some years,like 2013, just a single case was reported. In 2004, 15 cases were reported. But in 1975 there was a big epidemic of servere disease that affected 2,000 people in the midwest.

[6]圣路易脑炎。主要流行于美国的密西西比河附近和俄亥俄河流域,偶尔波及到加拿大南部和墨西哥北部地区,其流行与气温及雨量有关,多发生在每年的7—9月份。临床特征包括发热、头痛和中枢神经系统症状。人对本病普遍易感,感染后可获持久免疫力。

》》在线咨询马晨抒老师托福写作中关于病毒的题目,免费咨询电话400-618-0272

蚊子虽小,却是传播疾病的祸首,美国“Gates notes”网站发布的数据显示,蚊子在15种最致命的动物中名列榜首,其每年伤害人类的数量超过排行榜中其他所有动物数量的总和,达72.5万人。人与蚊子的斗争持续已久,也将继续。

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