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托福阅读——社会类(五)

作者:边佳宁

2015-07-30 新通教育

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Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades to apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.
 
The creation of a labor force that was accustomed to working in factories did not occur easily. Before the rise of the factory, artisans had worked within the home. Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moral behavior. Journeymen knew that if they perfected their skill, they could become respected master artisans with their own shops. Also, skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at a steady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time.
 
The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant as those done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates of productivity. The new methods of doing business involved a new and stricter sense of time. Factory life necessitated a more regimented schedule, where work began at the sound of a bell and workers kept machines going at a constant pace. At the same time, workers were required to discard old habits, for industrialism demanded a worker who was alert, dependable, and self-disciplined. Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and, since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work.
 
The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are so many living machines." With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in the community. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with the masters supervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Few workers rose through the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve the artisan's dream of setting up one's own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their decline in status.
 
In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized to protect their rights and traditional ways of life. Craft workers such as carpenters, printers, and tailors formed unions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades' Union. The labor movement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of 1837, but in the depression that followed, labor's strength collapsed. During hard times, few workers were willing to strike* or engage in collective action. And skilled craft workers, who spearheaded the union movement, did not feel a particularly strong bond with semiskilled factory workers and unskilled laborers. More than a decade of agitation did finally bring a workday shortened to 10 hours to most industries by the 1850’s, and the courts also recognized workers' right to strike, but these gains had little immediate impact.
 
Workers were united in resenting the industrial system and their loss of status, but they were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender, conflicting religious perspectives, occupational differences, political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics. For them, the factory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of their loss of independence and a measure of control over their lives. As United States society became more specialized and differentiated, greater extremes of wealth began to appear. And as the new markets created fortunes for the few, the factory system lowered the wages of workers by dividing labor into smaller, less skilled tasks.
 
 
Paragraph 1: Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades to apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.
 
1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about articles manufactured before 1815? 
○They were primarily produced by women.
○They were generally produced in shops rather than in homes.
○They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed of production.
○They were produced mostly in large cities with extensive transportation networks.
 
 Paragraph 2: The creation of a labor force that was accustomed to working in factories did not occur easily. Before the rise of the factory, artisans had worked within the home. Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moral behavior. Journeymen knew that if they perfected their skill, they could become respected master artisans with their own shops. Also, skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at a steady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time.
 
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information
○Masters demanded moral behavior from apprentices but often treated them irresponsibly.
○The responsibilities of the master to the apprentice went beyond the teaching of a trade.
○Masters preferred to maintain the trade within the family by supervising and educating the younger family members.
○Masters who trained members of their own family as apprentices demanded excellence from them.
 
Paragraph 3: The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant as those done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates of productivity. The new methods of doing business involved a new and stricter sense of time. Factory life necessitated a more regimented schedule, where work began at the sound of a bell and workers kept machines going at a constant pace. At the same time, workers were required to discard old habits, for industrialism demanded a worker who was alert, dependable, and self-disciplined. Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and, since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work.
 
3. The word “disrupted” in the passage is closest in meaning to 
○prolonged
○established
○followed
○upset

Paragraph 4: The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are so many living machines." With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in the community. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with the masters supervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Few workers rose through the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve the artisan's dream of setting up one's own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their decline in status.

 
4. In paragraph 4, the author includes the quotation from a mill worker in order to
○support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust to working in factories
○to show that workers sometimes quit because of the loud noise made by factory machinery
○argue that clocks did not have a useful function in factories
○emphasize that factories were most successful when workers revealed their complaints
 
5. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 4 as consequences of the new system for workers EXCEPT a loss of 
○freedom
○status in the community
○opportunities for advancement
○contact among workers who were not managers
 
Paragraph 5: In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized to protect their rights and traditional ways of life. Craft workers such as carpenters, printers, and tailors formed unions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades' Union. The labor movement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of 1837, but in the depression that followed, labor's strength collapsed. During hard times, few workers were willing to strike* or engage in collective action. And skilled craft workers, who spearheaded the union movement, did not feel a particularly strong bond with semiskilled factory workers and unskilled laborers. More than a decade of agitation did finally bring a workday shortened to 10 hours to most industries by the 1850’s, and the courts also recognized workers' right to strike, but these gains had little immediate impact.
 
6. The phrase “gathered some momentum” in the passage is closest in meaning to 
○made progress
○became active
○caused changes
○combined forces
7. The word “spearheaded” in the passage is closest in meaning to 
○led
○accepted
○changed
○resisted
 
8. Which of the following statements about the labor movement of the 1800's is supported by paragraph 5?
○It was most successful during times of economic crisis.
○Its primary purpose was to benefit unskilled laborers.
○It was slow to improve conditions for workers.
○It helped workers of all skill levels form a strong bond with each other.
 
Paragraph 6: Workers were united in resenting the industrial system and their loss of status, but they were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender, conflicting religious perspectives, occupational differences, political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics. For them, the factory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of their loss of independence and a measure of control over their lives. As United States society became more specialized and differentiated, greater extremes of wealth began to appear. And as the new markets created fortunes for the few, the factory system lowered the wages of workers by dividing labor into smaller, less skilled tasks.
 
9. The author identifies political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics as two of several factors that  
○encouraged workers to demand higher wages
○created divisions among workers
○caused work to become more specialized
○increased workers' resentment of the industrial system
 
10. The word “them” in the passage refers to
○workers
○political patty loyalties
○disagreements over tactics
○agents of opportunity
 
Paragraph 1: Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. ■As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades to apprentices and journeymen. ■In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. ■After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. ■Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.
 
11. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
This new form of manufacturing depended on the movement of goods to distant locations and a centralized source of laborers.
Where would the sentence best fit?
 
12. Directions: Complete the table below by indicating which of the answer choices describe characteristics of the period before 1815 and which describe characteristics of the 1815-1850 period. This question is worth 3 points.
 
Before 1815
1815-1850
● 
 
 
Answer choices
○A united, highly successful labor movement took shape.
○Workers took pride in their workmanship.
○The income gap between the rich and the poor increased greatly.
○Transportation networks began to decline.
○Emphasis was placed on following schedules.
○Workers went through an extensive period of training.
○Few workers expected to own their own businesses.
 
 
 
 
 

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